Auch die 17entdeckten Planeten Uranus und Neptun sowie der entdeckte Zwergplanet Pluto – bis Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-Wiki. Da die Lernplattform „Moodle“ am St.-Dominikus-Gymnasium schon seit zehn Jahren eingesetzt wird, konnte sie sehr.
IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-WikiAuch die 17entdeckten Planeten Uranus und Neptun sowie der entdeckte Zwergplanet Pluto – bis Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Planeten. • Zwergplaneten. • Natürliche Satelliten. (Monde). • Kleinkörper Verlust des neunten Planeten ☹ fgdjradiomexico.com
Wiki Planeten Navigatiemenu VideoChildren of Planet Earth: The Voyager Golden Record Remixed - Symphony of Science In unserem Wissenspool gibt es passendes Unterrichtsmaterial zu allen Folgen. Eine Expertenkommission hatte im Vorfeld der Konferenz eine Definition erarbeitet, die eine Tour De France Platzierungen der Planetenanzahl auf 12 vorsah. Dabei entstehen Objekte bis zu etwa einer Marsmasse.
Seit Ende der er Jahre werden zunehmend Objekte jenseits der Neptun- beziehungsweise der Plutobahn entdeckt. Diese transneptunischen Objekte wurden gelegentlich von der Presse ebenfalls als Planet bezeichnet.
Dieser Zuwachs an neuentdeckten Himmelsobjekten im Sonnensystem wurde durch die verfeinerte Beobachtungstechnik ermöglicht, die nun auch die exakte wissenschaftliche Definition von Planeten erfordert und ermöglicht.
Während diesen zusätzlichen Objekten gute Chancen gegeben wurden, als Planeten anerkannt zu werden, entschied die Durch genaue Messungen der Wiederkehrzeit des Strahls, der die Erde vom Pulsar aus erreicht, konnten zwei Planeten mit Massen von 4,3 und 3,9 Erdmassen nachgewiesen werden und ein dritter mit 0,02 Erdmassen.
Auf diesen Planeten ist Leben , wie wir es von der Erde kennen, praktisch ausgeschlossen. Anfang waren über extrasolare Planeten bekannt.
Bei den meisten Sternen wurde bisher aber nur ein einzelner Planet entdeckt. Es gibt aber zum Beispiel auch das System Kepler mit seit Dezember acht bestätigten Planeten.
Viele bisher entdeckte Exoplaneten sind nicht vergleichbar mit denen des Sonnensystems. Dies liegt vor allem daran, dass extrem sonnennahe Planeten viel einfacher nachgewiesen werden können als solche, die länger für einen Umlauf um ihren Stern benötigen.
Exoplaneten im Orbit um sonnenähnliche Sterne konnten bis nicht mit Teleskopen direkt beobachtet werden, da sie sehr lichtschwach sind.
Sie werden von dem um ein Vielfaches helleren Stern, den sie umrunden, überstrahlt. Man nutzt daher verschiedene indirekte Methoden wie die Transitmethode , bei der durch die Bedeckungen des Sterns durch den Planeten periodische Helligkeitsabsenkungen des Sterns verursacht werden, falls die Umlaufbahn so liegt, dass der Planet von uns aus gesehen genau vor dem Stern vorbeizieht.
Eine andere Methode ist die Radialgeschwindigkeitsmethode, bei welcher der Planet durch seinen Schwerkrafteinfluss am Stern zieht beide umrunden den gemeinsamen Schwerpunkt und somit von der Erde aus diese periodische Bewegung eine abwechselnde Rot- und Blauverschiebung Doppler-Effekt des Spektrums des Sterns bewirkt.
Laplace ging von einem langsam rotierenden Gasball aus, der unter der Eigengravitation kollabiert. Wegen der Erhaltung des Drehimpulses kollabiert dieser Gasball zu einem linsenartigen Gebilde.
International Astronomical Union. Retrieved Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 May The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. New York Times.
Kubas; J. Beaulieu; M. Dominik; et al. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 7 November Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Bibcode : PNAS.. The Library of Congress. Merriam-Webster OnLine. Retrieved 29 June Oxford English Dictionary. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan Walker ed.
The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford University Press. In Jack Sasson ed.
Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. A History of Horoscopic Astrology. Astrological reports to Assyrian kings. State Archives of Assyria. Helsinki University Press.
Part One. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Mare Kõiva; Andres Kuperjanov eds. Electronic Journal of Folklore. Sachs May 2, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
Greek philosophy: Thales to Plato. Macmillan and Co. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA Ptolemy's Almagest.
Princeton University Press. O'Connor and E. Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. Bibcode : BASI Ragep In Thomas Hockey ed.
The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Bibcode : eaa.. Razaullah Ansari History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 History of Astronomy , held in Kyoto, August 25—26, Retrieved 11 February The Galileo Project.
Naval Observatory. The Free Press. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Bibcode : PNAS Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm.
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. IAU Circular. Bibcode : IAUC. Circular No. Archived from the original on June 24, Following a observation that the light absorbance of the upper cloud layers was consistent with the presence of microorganisms, a September article in Nature Astronomy announced the detection of phosphine gas, a biomarker , in concentrations higher than can be explained by any known abiotic source.
By late October , re-analysis of data with a proper subtraction of background did not result in the detection of phosphine.
Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, meaning that it is a rocky body like Earth. It is similar to Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin".
Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because its dense atmosphere is The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century.
Venera landers in and returned images of a surface covered in sediment and relatively angular rocks. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism , and the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been recent eruptions.
The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtar , the Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia.
Maxwell Montes , the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra. A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area.
The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible calderas remains an enigma. These features are volcanic in origin. Most Venusian surface features are named after historical and mythological women.
The last three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union , the body which oversees planetary nomenclature.
The longitude of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian. The original prime meridian passed through the radar-bright spot at the centre of the oval feature Eve, located south of Alpha Regio.
Much of the Venusian surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. The only volcanic complex of this size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii.
Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. Sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere dropped by a factor of 10 between and , jumped in , and again declined fold.
In January , astronomers reported evidence that suggests that Venus is currently volcanically active. In and , the first direct evidence for ongoing volcanism was observed by Venus Express , in the form of four transient localized infrared hot spots within the rift zone Ganis Chasma ,  [n 1] near the shield volcano Maat Mons.
Three of the spots were observed in more than one successive orbit. These spots are thought to represent lava freshly released by volcanic eruptions.
Almost a thousand impact craters on Venus are evenly distributed across its surface. On other cratered bodies, such as Earth and the Moon, craters show a range of states of degradation.
On the Moon, degradation is caused by subsequent impacts, whereas on Earth it is caused by wind and rain erosion. Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle, Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust.
Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater.
The stratigraphically oldest tessera terrains have consistently lower thermal emissivity than the surrounding basaltic plains measured by Venus Express and Magellan , indicating a different, possibly a more felsic , mineral assemblage.
However, the nature of tessera terrains is far from certain. Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertia , little direct information is available about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus.
Like that of Earth, the Venusian core is at least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate.
This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.
Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere composed of This temperature is higher than that used for sterilization. Venus' atmosphere is extremely enriched of primordial noble gases compared to that of Earth.
An unusually large comet impact  or accretion of a more massive primary atmosphere from solar nebula  have been proposed to explain the enrichment.
However, the atmosphere is also depleted of radiogenic argon, a proxy to mantle degassing, suggesting an early shutdown of major magmatism.
Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of Venus' surface does not vary significantly between the planet's two hemispheres, those facing and not facing the Sun, despite Venus' extremely slow rotation.
Winds at the surface are slow, moving at a few kilometres per hour, but because of the high density of the atmosphere at the surface, they exert a significant amount of force against obstructions, and transport dust and small stones across the surface.
This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through, even without the heat, pressure, and lack of oxygen.
Above the dense CO 2 layer are thick clouds, consisting mainly of sulfuric acid , which is formed by sulfur dioxide and water through a chemical reaction resulting in sulfuric acid hydrate.
Clouds at different levels have different compositions and particle size distributions. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun, it receives less sunlight on the ground.
The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal ; it retains a constant temperature not only between the two hemispheres but between the equator and the poles.
This substance likely formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gaseous form to higher elevations, where it is cooler and could precipitate.
The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide galena.
Although Venus has no seasons as such, in astronomers identified a cyclical variation in sunlight absorption by the atmosphere, possibly caused by opaque, absorbing particles suspended in the upper clouds.
The variation causes observed changes in the speed of Venus' zonal winds, and appears to rise and fall in time with the Sun's year sunspot cycle.
The existence of lightning in the atmosphere of Venus has been controversial  since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes    In —07, Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves , the signatures of lightning.
Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity. According to these measurements, the lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth,  however other instruments have not detected lightning at all.
In , Venus Express discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole. In December , and to a lesser extent in April and May , researchers working on Japan's Akatsuki mission observed bow shapes in the atmosphere of Venus.
This was considered direct evidence of the existence of perhaps the largest stationary gravity waves in the solar system.
In , Venera 4 found Venus' magnetic field to be much weaker than that of Earth. This magnetic field is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind ,   rather than by an internal dynamo as in the Earth's core.
Venus' small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation. The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising, given that it is similar to Earth in size and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core.
A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid, rotation, and convection. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and, although its rotation is often thought to be too slow, simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo.
On Earth, convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much higher in temperature than the top.
On Venus, a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. This would cause the mantle temperature to increase, thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core.
As a result, no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field. Instead, the heat from the core is reheating the crust.
One possibility is that Venus has no solid inner core,  or that its core is not cooling, so that the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature.
Another possibility is that its core has already completely solidified. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur , which is unknown at present.
The weak magnetosphere around Venus means that the solar wind is interacting directly with its outer atmosphere. Here, ions of hydrogen and oxygen are being created by the dissociation of neutral molecules from ultraviolet radiation.
The solar wind then supplies energy that gives some of these ions sufficient velocity to escape Venus' gravity field.
This erosion process results in a steady loss of low-mass hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions, whereas higher-mass molecules, such as carbon dioxide, are more likely to be retained.
Na het verwerpen van de leer van het geocentrisme en het aannemen van de heliocentrische theorie werd de Aarde aan het rijtje van planeten toegevoegd en de Zon ervan geschrapt.
Toen Galileo Galilei manen rond Jupiter ontdekte werd ook de maan van de Aarde niet langer als planeet gezien.
Lange tijd werd "elk hemellichaam dat rond de Zon draaide en niet rond een ander hemellichaam" als planeet geclassificeerd.
Later is deze definitie geregeld gewijzigd en verder gespecificeerd. Het zonnestelsel bevat acht planeten. Vanaf de zon gezien zijn dat genummerd volgens afbeelding rechts :.
Vrijwel alle planeten zijn in Europese talen vernoemd naar Romeinse goden. De enige uitzonderingen zijn Uranus vernoemd naar een Griekse godheid en de Aarde.
Over de naamgeving van planeten buiten het zonnestelsel bestaat geen eenduidigheid. Veelal wordt de naam of aanduiding van de ster waar de planeet omheen draait, gebruikt, voorzien van een extra letter.
Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements.
Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.
A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are thought to have formed with Jupiter.
The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids.
Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.
Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.
Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.
Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt , the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history.
Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun.
These are known as the Trojan asteroids , and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad.
The first of these, Achilles , was discovered by Max Wolf in ; since then more than two thousand have been discovered. Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's.
Jupiter family comets are thought to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.
Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface. Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner,  because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System.
It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets. A survey of early astronomical records and drawings suggested that a certain dark surface feature discovered by astronomer Giovanni Cassini in may have been an impact scar.
The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between and It was later determined, however, that these candidate sites had little or no possibility of being the results of the proposed impacts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For the Roman god, see Jupiter mythology.
For other uses, see Jupiter disambiguation. Fifth planet from the Sun and largest planet in the Solar System.
Full disk view in natural color, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April [a]. Semi-major axis. Orbital period.
Synodic period. Average orbital speed. Mean anomaly. Equatorial radius. Polar radius. Surface area. Mean density.
Surface gravity. Moment of inertia factor. Escape velocity. Sidereal rotation period. Axial tilt. Apparent magnitude.
Angular diameter. Surface pressure. Scale height. Main article: Grand tack hypothesis. See also: Formation and evolution of the Solar System.
Play media. Jupiter flyover Juno ; ; Jun Main article: Jupiter mass. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
May Main article: Atmosphere of Jupiter. Main article: Magnetosphere of Jupiter. Planet Jupiter. Aurorae on the north and south poles animation.
Aurorae on the north pole of Jupiter Hubble. Infrared view of southern lights Jovian IR Mapper.
The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to Earth. Main article: Exploration of Jupiter.
Main article: Galileo spacecraft. Jupiter viewed by the Juno spacecraft February 12, Main article: Juno spacecraft.
Main article: Moons of Jupiter. See also: Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons and Satellite system astronomy.
Main article: Galilean moons. Main article: Rings of Jupiter. Solar System portal. Jupiter's atmosphere and its appearance constantly changes , and hence its current appearance today may not resemble what it was when this image was taken.
Depicted in this image, however, are a few features that remain consistent, such as the famous Great Red Spot , featured prominently in the lower right of the image, and the planet's recognizable banded appearance.
International Astronomical Union. October 1, Retrieved October 24, That particular word has been in use since at least Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
URL consultato il 9 settembre Nonostante il rifiuto di Fee, il colonnello Thunders la erge ad eroina del movimento pacifista.
Il capitano della Von Braun incarica Hachi di pronunciare il discorso di sbarco su Giove. Locksmith fa visita ad un prete, suo professore di ingegneria, per reclutarlo come scienziato per una missione su Saturno, ma quest'ultimo rifiuta.
Nel giugno Sunrise e Bandai Visual iniziarono a discutere di una possibile coproduzione animata di genere fantascientifico. I produttori della serie TV decisero dunque di modificare in parte la vicenda, facendo apparire Tanabe come protagonista sin dal primo episodio della serie per poi plasmare i successivi episodi sulla sua esperienza nello spazio e sulla missione di Hachimaki a bordo della Von Braun; gli eventi conclusivi della serie hanno a loro volta uno svolgimento differente da quelli presenti nel manga.
Parte dello staff di produzione dell'anime ha partecipato anche alla produzione di un'altra serie, che venne trasmessa nello stesso periodo dal network NHK , Twin Spica.
Per questa ragione, si trovano alcuni velati riferimenti a quest'ultima serie all'interno di Planetes, come ad esempio:.
Seppur differenti nello sviluppo della trama principale, delle sottotrame e in parte del cast di personaggi, l'anime e il manga presentano numerosi riferimenti reciproci, tra i quali:.
Nell'anime non mancano i riferimenti alla tecnologia odierna, o ad oggi considerata futuribile ma realizzabile negli anni a venire, per esempio:.